Authored by Nitesh

The battery is considered the brains of the electric vehicle and is equivalent to the fuel tank of the IC engine. Choosing the right battery and battery pack can actually mean the difference in having:

  • 3-4 times the life of the battery
  • 50%+ efficiency
  • 5 times difference in weight
  • And numerous other factors

This is why choosing the correct battery for your EV is crucial to its success. To select the right battery, you must first know about all the major types of EV batteries.

  1. Lithium-ion battery: The lithium ion battery pack is currently the king of EV batteries because of its long lifecycle, relatively lower weight, higher efficiency, and better performance in high temperatures. Most EV players use it to power their vehicles. The battery holder for this battery type plays a big role in efficient operations. It is used in most of the electric vehicles in india.
  2. Ultracapacitors: This battery is not like the other batteries on the list and uses polarised liquid between the electrode and the electrolyte to power the current. It is used as a secondary source of power, mainly used to provide additional power when needed.
  3. Nickel-metal hydride battery: This is used mainly in hybrid EVs because of their durability and safety. In hybrid EVs, they are charged using fuel rather than external charging. Challenges with this type include high cost and temperature issues.
  4. Lead-acid battery: It is one of the earliest invented batteries and has been powering vehicles since the late 19th century. Nowadays, it is not used as the main EV battery but is used sometimes to power different types of accessories in an EV. This type is cost-effective and reliable.

Factors to look for while selecting your EV battery

While choosing the correct battery type, you must compare the types for the following factors:

  • Weight of the battery
  • Charge time
  • Different types of costs, including material, water demineralisation, and additional costs
  • Life of the battery
  • Safety
  • Efficiency

Types of battery packs and how to choose the right one

After selecting the correct battery for your EV needs, the next and most important thing is choosing the battery pack design.

The battery packs store the cells that power the motor and other EV parts. The packs protect the cells from dirt, water, and other environmental factors. It also helps keep the cells at an optimum temperature and protects them in case of accidents or other emergencies.

Battery packs are custom designed for EVs and should take into account numerous factors, including:

  • Resilience and durability of the material
  • Air permeability for ventilation
  • Temperature resistance
  • Stress/strain characteristics
  • Safety features
  • Weight
  • Stiffness
  • Corrosion resistance

The type of battery box can also depend on the type of battery cells you choose, and these mainly come in three types: Cylindrical cells, Pouch cells, and Prismatic cells.

Depending on the factors listed above and the type of EV you are building, a specific material would be the right choice for the battery pack design. Different types of preferred materials include:

  1. Polymer Composite
  2. Steel
  3. Aluminium

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